Another pest of economic importance is the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) which feeds exclusively on cruciferous host plants. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1, George, R. A. T., 2009. N. officinale seeds and stem fragments can become attached to the feet of animals, including birds, which could then transport these propagules both locally and, possibly, for long distances. In New Zealand, Coffey and Clayton (1988) suggested that N. officinale is more common than N. microphyllum in the North Island of New Zealand and the reverse is true in the South Island, which may relate to the observation by Howard and Lyon (1952a) that N. officinale is ‘considerably less frost-resistant’ than N. microphyllum. However, in 1922 Thomson (1922) reported plant size  to be ‘quite normal.’. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/ethnobot.pl?ethnobot.taxon=Nasturtium%20officinale, Edmonds C, Hawke R, 2004. Nickel accumulation and its effect on biomass, protein content and antioxifative enzymes in roots and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. N. officinale is now found as a fast-growing environmental weed in parts of North America, Australasia and southern Africa. It is commonly cultivated as brown or winter cress (Howard and Lyon, 1952a). 1999. Anthers yellow. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. 159. Flowers are self- or cross-pollinated. Nasturtium officinale (Brassicaceae). † Populations may not be currently present. The naturalisation of animals and plants in New Zealand. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-ARS, 2014. Evolution of hybrid taxa in Nasturtium R.Br. According to Howard and Lyon (1952a), quoting Barkworth (1938), N. officinale may taint milk if eaten by cattle. Four sepals, free, glabrous or with a few strigose hairs at apex, 3 mm long. In: Identification of weeds and clovers [ed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress); flowering habit. Also southern Canada, Sub-Saharan Africa, South America, Australasia, and parts of tropical Asia. Howard and Lyon (1952b) suggested that N. officinale, since it is commonly cultivated, is more likely to be introduced than either N. microphyllum or the hybrid between the two species, N. x sterile. ADAS/MAFF, 1983. Seed is viable for up to about 5 years when stored dry in packets in the laboratory, but apparently loses viability with longer storage (Howard and Lyon, 1952b). 5 pp. Nasturtium officianale. Found in Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. In: The Natural History of Canterbury [ed. Autopolyploid and allopolyploid watercress with the description of a new species. Online Database. Online Database. 2008. Journal of Applied Ecology, 19(2):589-601, IPANE, 2014. N. officinale is an emergent aquatic plant growing in fresh water. ©Zeynel Cebeci/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0. Stems 10-110 (-120) cm. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, Seelig RA, 1974. Evolution of Hybrid Taxa in Nasturtium R.Br. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. N. officinale has become naturalised in many countries outside its native range, and is widely grown as a crop. nasturtii). Seeds in two rows per cell, reddish-brown in colour. Reference book 136 `Watercress’. Acta Tropica 92(2):161-162, Jafari S, Hassandokht M, 2012. Survey of invasive or potentially Invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. (Brassicaceae). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). N. x sterile can be recognized by its short fruits, which contain only an occasional seed. The watercress glucosinolate-myrosinase system: a feeding deterrent to caddisflies, snails and amphipods. http://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/, ITIS, 2014. The same authors measured no growth in May (late autumn). R. palustris is an annual or biennial upright plant with pale yellow flowers and a small fruit (5-9 mm long) with two rows of seeds on either side of a central division. The alternate hosts of the fluke are water snails, which often live on watercress and can therefore pass the infection on to humans, where it can cause fasciolosis. It is apparently native to much of European and Asian countries, stretching from the British Isles probably as far as western … Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77(4):340-346; 80 ref, Mason R, 1982. Seeds biseriate, reddish brown, ovoid, (0.8-)0.9-1.1 (-1.3) × (0.6-)0.7-0.9(-1) mm, coarsely reticulate with 25-50(-60) areolae on each side (Al-Shehbaz, 2014). Nasturtium officinale (watercress); habit in a wet spot. 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