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The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. \[\left ( \begin{array}{rr} -5 & 2 \\ -7 & 4 \end{array}\right ) \left ( \begin{array}{r} 1 \\ 1 \end{array} \right ) = \left ( \begin{array}{r} -3 \\ -3 \end{array}\right ) = -3 \left ( \begin{array}{r} 1\\ 1 \end{array} \right )\]. :) https://www.patreon.com/patrickjmt !! For \(\lambda_1 =0\), we need to solve the equation \(\left( 0 I - A \right) X = 0\). Example \(\PageIndex{3}\): Find the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the matrix \[A=\left ( \begin{array}{rrr} 5 & -10 & -5 \\ 2 & 14 & 2 \\ -4 & -8 & 6 \end{array} \right )\], We will use Procedure [proc:findeigenvaluesvectors]. Notice that when you multiply on the right by an elementary matrix, you are doing the column operation defined by the elementary matrix. Given a square matrix A, the condition that characterizes an eigenvalue, Î», is the existence of a nonzero vector x such that A x = Î» x; this equation can be rewritten as follows:. As noted above, \(0\) is never allowed to be an eigenvector. These are the solutions to \(((-3)I-A)X = 0\). Also, determine the identity matrix I of the same order. 3. Recall that they are the solutions of the equation \[\det \left( \lambda I - A \right) =0\], In this case the equation is \[\det \left( \lambda \left ( \begin{array}{rrr} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array} \right ) - \left ( \begin{array}{rrr} 5 & -10 & -5 \\ 2 & 14 & 2 \\ -4 & -8 & 6 \end{array} \right ) \right) =0\], \[\det \left ( \begin{array}{ccc} \lambda - 5 & 10 & 5 \\ -2 & \lambda - 14 & -2 \\ 4 & 8 & \lambda - 6 \end{array} \right ) = 0\], Using Laplace Expansion, compute this determinant and simplify. The following are the properties of eigenvalues. However, A2 = Aand so 2 = for the eigenvector x. Find its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Lemma \(\PageIndex{1}\): Similar Matrices and Eigenvalues. Step 4: From the equation thus obtained, calculate all the possible values of λ\lambdaλ which are the required eigenvalues of matrix A. We will use Procedure [proc:findeigenvaluesvectors]. \[\left ( \begin{array}{rr} -5 & 2 \\ -7 & 4 \end{array}\right ) \left ( \begin{array}{r} 2 \\ 7 \end{array} \right ) = \left ( \begin{array}{r} 4 \\ 14 \end{array}\right ) = 2 \left ( \begin{array}{r} 2\\ 7 \end{array} \right )\]. The result is the following equation. This is illustrated in the following example. Let \(A=\left ( \begin{array}{rrr} 1 & 2 & 4 \\ 0 & 4 & 7 \\ 0 & 0 & 6 \end{array} \right ) .\) Find the eigenvalues of \(A\). Thus the matrix you must row reduce is \[\left ( \begin{array}{rrr|r} 0 & 10 & 5 & 0 \\ -2 & -9 & -2 & 0 \\ 4 & 8 & -1 & 0 \end{array} \right )\] The is \[\left ( \begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 0 & - \vspace{0.05in}\frac{5}{4} & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & \vspace{0.05in}\frac{1}{2} & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} \right )\], and so the solution is any vector of the form \[\left ( \begin{array}{c} \vspace{0.05in}\frac{5}{4}s \\ -\vspace{0.05in}\frac{1}{2}s \\ s \end{array} \right ) =s\left ( \begin{array}{r} \vspace{0.05in}\frac{5}{4} \\ -\vspace{0.05in}\frac{1}{2} \\ 1 \end{array} \right )\] where \(s\in \mathbb{R}\). Suppose there exists an invertible matrix \(P\) such that \[A = P^{-1}BP\] Then \(A\) and \(B\) are called similar matrices. Eigenvalue is a scalar quantity which is associated with a linear transformation belonging to a vector space. All vectors are eigenvectors of I. This clearly equals \(0X_1\), so the equation holds. In this case, the product \(AX\) resulted in a vector equal to \(0\) times the vector \(X\), \(AX=0X\). When this equation holds for some \(X\) and \(k\), we call the scalar \(k\) an eigenvalue of \(A\). A simple example is that an eigenvector does not change direction in a transformation:. It is of fundamental importance in many areas and is the subject of our study for this chapter. Have questions or comments? Add to solve later First, add \(2\) times the second row to the third row. Where, “I” is the identity matrix of the same order as A. This equation becomes \(-AX=0\), and so the augmented matrix for finding the solutions is given by \[\left ( \begin{array}{rrr|r} -2 & -2 & 2 & 0 \\ -1 & -3 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & -1 & -1 & 0 \end{array} \right )\] The is \[\left ( \begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 0 & -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} \right )\] Therefore, the eigenvectors are of the form \(t\left ( \begin{array}{r} 1 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{array} \right )\) where \(t\neq 0\) and the basic eigenvector is given by \[X_1 = \left ( \begin{array}{r} 1 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{array} \right )\], We can verify that this eigenvector is correct by checking that the equation \(AX_1 = 0 X_1\) holds. \[AX=\lambda X \label{eigen1}\] for some scalar \(\lambda .\) Then \(\lambda\) is called an eigenvalue of the matrix \(A\) and \(X\) is called an eigenvector of \(A\) associated with \(\lambda\), or a \(\lambda\)-eigenvector of \(A\). 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